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Season 8. Season 7. Season 6. Season 5. Season 3. Season 2. Short The acting administrator indicated that the procedures could be implemented by the end of June The Safety Board's latest information from the GCD office August indicated that the procedures had not been implemented. The Guam government conducted a review of its response to the accident and issued a report, titled Korean Air Incident Report.
Problems discussed in the report included the lack of radio communications between key personnel, which complicated the command situation. The report stated, " Additionally, the report cited the remoteness of the accident site and the difficulty in bringing fire trucks close enough to the site to be effective. However, the report stated that "no fire suppression was used" because it would have "interfered with rescue operations.
It is noted that the first rescuers arrived approximately 55 minutes after the plane had crashed If the fire was as intense as originally reported [immediately after impact], fatalities caused by fire and smoke inhalation would have occurred before the rescuers arrived.
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Because of advances in computer technology and terrain mapping capabilities, GPWS manufacturers have developed improved terrain avoidance systems. See section 1. This system was not installed or required on the accident airplane. An enhanced GPWS simulation was conducted after the accident to determine the additional forewarning that the flight crew of Korean Air flight would have received if such a system had been installed on the airplane. Further, the simulation indicated that the visual and aural approach path alert would have been generated at , as the airplane was descending through 1, feet msl, or about 64 seconds before the airplane crashed.
After the accident, the KCAB and Korean Air conducted a series of independent tests on a Boeing on the ground to determine if spurious radio-frequency energy could induce an abnormal "false" glideslope indication. These tests were not intended to represent conditions at the time of the accident; rather, the tests were designed to explore ILS system sensitivity to spurious signals.
According to Korean Air engineers, the tests revealed that the glideslope deviation needle could be positioned near the middle of the glideslope reference scale, and the warning flag could be retracted by introducing a " MHz signal Hz signal modulated at percent " near the ILS receiver antenna. The demonstration, which was conducted using a portable RV5 B receiver and a signal generator, indicated that a single Hz signal with percent modulation at the Guam ILS frequency resulted in an out-of-view glideslope flag and glideslope indicator movement.
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The reception of such a signal could result in the movement of the glideslope receiver needle and present a false indication to the pilot. The engineer stated that "the pilot would normally be warned that a signal is not present by the presence of a flag, a warning flag, that indicates that something about the receiver system or something about the ground system is abnormal He concluded that " The FAA engineer also testified that, although the glideslope at Guam International Airport had been removed from its shelter, radio signals generated by some other source could have provided an intermittent signal to the glideslope receiver, which might have prevented the instrument warning flag from remaining in view.
The engineer explained that potential external sources of noise and unintended signals, which are normally too weak to be heard, can be heard on an empty channel and that, during airborne flight tests of ILSs in which the localizer or the glideslope is turned off, it has been fairly common for the cockpit instrumentation to record intermittent indications of flag and needle activity. However, he expressed that this sort of activity on the instrumentation referred to by pilots as "flag pops" is typically intermittent and of very short duration.
The engineer testified about the types of radio signals that could potentially cause a movement of the flag. He stated that the ILS transmits two tones and that the difference in the signal strength of the tones deflects the glideslope fly-up and fly-down needle. He added that " Further, the FAA engineer stated that the flag circuit, the other indication that a pilot sees, is driven by a signal that is the sum of the two circuits or the two signals.
He indicated that "as long as the 90 and [Hz] signals are both present at sufficient strength, the flag will remain out of view. Korean Air evolved from Korean National Airlines, a government-owned carrier established in to provide domestic air service from Seoul to Pusan. The airline was privatized in and renamed Korean Airlines. The name was again changed to Korean Air Company, Ltd.
Air Crash Investigation
Korean Air, in the s. The Deputy Director of Flight Operations, in his closing remarks at the public hearing, stated:. In a March 26, , letter, however, Korean Air requested that the Safety Board remove the Deputy Director of Flight Operations' statement from the public hearing record. In its letter, Korean Air maintained that the deputy director's statement was "personal in nature" and "made in accordance with the Korean custom to express condolences on public occasions to those affected by an accident.
The vice president of Korean Air was subsequently promoted to president and chief executive officer. Korean Air also stated that it planned to accomplish the following:.
Korean Air also indicated that it planned to mandate a day English language training course and implement a confidential pilot reporting system so that errors and concerns can be reported to the chief pilot without fear of reprisal. In addition, the airline implemented a "maintenance error decision air program" designed to detect potential maintenance anomalies caused by human error. In May , Korean Air's new president issued a safety policy statement and additional material to support the company's planned safety enhancements.
First, the Immediate Action Plan imposed operational limits at five airports in Korea to minimize exposure to risk when the margin of safety may be reduced. For example, at three of the five airports, no operations can be conducted at night when the runways are wet or crosswinds exceed 15 knots. Second, the plan contained Korean Air's revised policies and procedures for operations under slippery runway conditions  and the use of automation. Fourth, the Immediate Action Plan stated that Korean Air's most important operating priority is safety.
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According to Korean Air, every company line captain participated in a series of seminars in April in which the captain's decision-making, authority, and responsibilities were redefined. These seminars reemphasized that the captain "serves as the first, and last, line of quality assurance for [Korean Air], and is charged with final responsibility for the safety of its flight operations. The plan stated that Korean Air created an Executive Action Council to resolve critical operational and support issues in a timely manner and a Flight Operations Action Team to identify and resolve critical flight operations issues.
According to Korean Air, 8 of the total 21 chapters of the Flight Operations Manual were revised and distributed to all flight crewmembers on August 1, , and the rest of the chapters were expected to be revised and distributed during October Korean Air also indicated that all of the company's Aircraft Operating Manuals had been revised and issued according to each aircraft manufacturer's schedule.
A Korean Air representative said in September that the Boeing operating manual had been revised four times since the flight accident. Korean Air conducts its ab-initio training at the Sierra Academy of Aeronautics in Livermore, California, and then at its Cheju flight training facility. To become qualified as a Korean Air flight instructor or evaluator, candidates must attend 1 week of ground school, 10 days of simulator observations, 10 days of practice simulator instruction, CRM and LOFT seminars, and check rides.